Just Sociology

Exploring Class Divisions in Society through Inequality Neoliberalism and the Olympics

Inequality and the law and Neoliberalism are two of the most pressing issues of our time. The former deals with how the law has shaped and is shaped by structures of inequality, while the latter refers to the global economic and political philosophy of individual freedom and free markets.

Both issues are deeply interconnected, as the law and economic policies have a significant impact on how inequality is felt and perpetuated in society. In this article, we will explore some of the complexities of these issues through a discussion of subtopics related to each main topic.

Inequality and the law

Staggering extent of wealth inequality

The staggering extent of wealth inequality is becoming more apparent as the rich become richer and the poor become poorer. For example, the late Duke of Westminster was estimated to have a fortune of over nine billion pounds, much of which was inherited.

This level of wealth inequality has serious implications for social mobility and the perpetuation of inequality across generations. It also raises important questions about the justness of our economic system and the role of inheritance in shaping social inequality.

Differential application of the law

In many cases, the law works to reinforce inequality rather than to challenge it. For instance, inheritance tax currently works to benefit the wealthy, as they have the resources to set up complex trust funds that allow them to avoid paying tax on their estates.

This differential application of the law means that the rich are able to maintain their wealth within their families, perpetuating inequalities between different social groups.

Gender inequality

Gender inequality is a pervasive issue that is often overlooked within discussions of inequality and the law. Women are frequently disadvantaged in the workplace, earning less than their male counterparts and facing barriers to reaching positions of leadership.

The inheritance system also often privileges male heirs over female ones, leaving women with fewer resources and opportunities. For instance, Prince William of England was able to inherit the Duchy of Cornwall from his father, despite having two older sisters, who were passed over in favor of their younger brother.


Critique of neoliberalism

Neoliberalism has been widely criticized for its emphasis on individualism, deregulation, and free markets. Some commentators argue that this philosophy has contributed to the death of the welfare state and has led to increasing economic inequality.

Martin Jacques, for example, has suggested that neoliberalism is in a state of crisis, as the economic slowdown and rising inequality threaten to undermine its legitimacy. Others have drawn on the work of critical theorist Antonio Gramsci to argue that neoliberalism has succeeded in shaping cultural norms and values in ways that make it difficult to challenge.

Evidence of alternatives to neoliberalism

Despite these criticisms, there is evidence of alternatives to neoliberalism emerging in various places around the world. The slowdown in economic growth and increasing inequality have led to political figures like Donald Trump and Jeremy Corbyn gaining prominence, with their identification as working-class representatives challenging the neoliberal status quo.

Left-wing economists such as Thomas Piketty, Ha-Joon Chang, and Paul Krugman have also proposed alternative economic policies that could address inequality and promote more equitable economic growth.

Uncertainty about alternatives

There is still a great deal of uncertainty about whether these alternatives to neoliberalism will be successful or not. For instance, the recent UK election demonstrated that while there is growing dissatisfaction with neoliberal economic policies, there is still a significant constituency that believes in market-driven economic models.

The Conservative Party’s success in winning the election despite controversy around austerity measures and growing inequality demonstrates that it is not yet clear what the future of economic policy will look like.


Inequality and the law and Neoliberalism are two complex issues that are deeply intertwined. The extent of wealth inequality, differential application of the law, and gender inequality all contribute to the perpetuation of inequalities between different groups.

Similarly, neoliberalism has been criticized for its emphasis on individualism and deregulation, but there is still uncertainty about what alternative economic policies might look like. Ultimately, these issues are central to our understanding of how society operates and the challenges that we need to confront in order to create a more just and equitable world.The Olympics is one of the biggest global sports events, where athletes from around the world come together to compete for their countries.

However, the Olympics also highlights issues related to class, as it often appears to be an elitist event geared towards those who have access to the resources needed to compete at the highest level. In this expansion, we will explore subtopics related to class in sports within the context of the Olympics.

The Olympics

Class divide in sports

Sports coverage in the media often reinforces a stereotype of athletes as individuals who come from privileged backgrounds. This idea is perpetuated by an elitist media culture, which tends to prioritize coverage of athletes from wealthy backgrounds or elite educational institutions.

For instance, during the 2016 Olympics, Team GB contained a high percentage of athletes who had been privately schooled, despite private schools only accounting for 7% of the UK population. This trend signifies the extent of class inequality in sports, revealing a significant divide between those who have access to resources such as high-quality training facilities and those who do not.

Relevance of structuration theory

Anthony Giddens’ theory of structuration is relevant in understanding how class inequality plays out in the context of the Olympics. Giddens argues that social structures are constantly evolving and that individuals are not simply passive beings within them.

The structure of sports is not inherently discriminatory, but it is the result of broader social and economic systems that reproduce inequalities. In other words, the structure of sports is a reflection of the underlying class structure of society, which reinforces the dominance of certain players or teams over others.

By examining the structural factors that contribute to the class inequality present in athletics, Giddens’ theory can help us understand how the situation could be changed.

Working class representation in sports

Working-class athletes often face significant barriers in gaining recognition and making it to competitive levels of sport. This is particularly evident in the UK, where “Sofa, Crisps and Chips” culture is prevalent in the North of the country, where children are more likely to face poverty or social deprivation.

These socio-economic factors hinder their opportunities to access training resources, resulting in a lack of working-class representation in elite sports. If the Olympics is to be truly representative of the global population, athletes from all backgrounds should be given equal opportunities to succeed.


The Olympics is a global event that highlights class inequalities in sports. Despite claims to the contrary, sports is not a level playing field, and there are significant structural barriers that prevent working-class athletes from reaching the elite level.

Giddens’ theory of structuration provides a useful framework for understanding how structural factors like the media and the education system create and reinforce these inequalities. To ensure that the Olympics and sports in general are more representative of society, we must address these structural issues to give working-class athletes access to the resources and opportunities that they need to compete successfully.


In conclusion, the issues of inequality and the law, neoliberalism, and the Olympics are all complex topics that shed light on the ways that class divisions affect society. The staggering extent of wealth inequality, differential application of the law, and gender inequality all contribute to perpetuating unequal systems, while neoliberalism has been criticized for its emphasis on individualism and free markets.

The Olympics also highlights issues related to class, with many athletes hailing from privileged backgrounds, leading to a lack of representation from working-class athletes. By understanding these issues and addressing them, we can work towards creating a more just and equitable society that benefits all individuals.


1. What is wealth inequality?

Wealth inequality refers to the uneven distribution of assets and resources across different social groups. 2.

What is neoliberalism? Neoliberalism is a political and economic philosophy that emphasizes individual freedom and free markets.

3. Why is there criticism of neoliberalism?

Critics argue that neoliberalism has led to the erosion of the welfare state and increasing economic inequality. 4.

What is Giddens structuration theory? Giddens structuration theory posits that social structures are constantly evolving, and individuals have agency in shaping them.

5. What is the class divide in sports?

The class divide in sports refers to how structural factors such as the media and the education system favor athletes from privileged backgrounds. 6.

What is working-class representation in sports? Working-class representation in sports refers to the efforts to ensure that athletes from all backgrounds have equal opportunities to succeed, regardless of socio-economic factors.

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