Just Sociology

Malestream vs Feminist Sociology: Unpacking Gender Bias in Research

Sociology is the scientific study of human society, including social groups, institutions, and relationships. Despite sociology’s emphasis on objectivity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness, it has long been criticized for its “malestream” perspective.

This term refers to the dominant narrative that overlooks or undermines female experiences, voices, and contributions. Feminist sociology arose as a direct response to this problem, offering a critical and constructive framework that seeks to understand the complexities of gender and power.

This article will explore malestream sociology and feminist sociology, analyzing their key concepts, debates, and implications in contemporary society.

Malestream Sociology

Malestream sociology is a term used to describe the way in which the field of sociology is biased towards the male experience. Since the founding of sociology as a discipline, many of the key theories, concepts, and studies have centered on men and their experiences, while ignoring or downplaying the experiences of women.

Feminist critics argue that malestream sociology has perpetuated the subordination and marginalization of women and distorted our understanding of social relations. Feminist Criticisms of

Malestream Sociology

Feminist critiques of malestream sociology argue that it is a biased, male-centered account that fails to acknowledge the diverse range of experiences and perspectives of women.

This perspective neglects the “female domain” and reproduces stereotypical theories about the role of women in society. Malestream sociology has regarded women as outsiders or others, assuming that men represent the norm in social interactions and structures.

Moreover, it has often prioritized individual agency over the systemic nature of power, underestimating the way in which gender shapes opportunities and outcomes.

Feminizing Sociology Differential Progress

Feminist sociologists aimed to reform and restructure sociology so that it became a more gender-inclusive approach. Feminist sociology has made significant progress in some areas, such as the study of gender inequality and marginalization, gender and sexuality, and the intersection of gender with other social categories.

However, in other areas, there has been little progress, such as the status of women’s work or the challenges of combining work and care. Although feminist sociology has influenced some aspects of sociological knowledge, work from malestream perspectives still dominates many sociology departments, limiting progress in other areas.

Dealing with

Malestream Sociology

Feminist sociologists have suggested several strategies to deal with the malestream orientation of sociology. An integration approach emphasizes filling the gaps of existing research and incorporating gender into existing theories that do not adequately account for gender.

A separatist approach involves creating a separate tradition of sociology that is for women, by women, and for those who wish to prioritize gender and intersectional perspectives. A reconceptualization approach involves reworking existing sociological studies and theories to embed feminism into the canon of sociology.

These three approaches are not mutually exclusive, but rather offer different strategies depending on the context of research and the goals of feminist inquiry. Is Contemporary Sociology Still Malestream in 2022?

Despite increasing awareness of gender issues, contemporary sociology remains malestream in several important ways. There is a reluctance to include gender and sexual orientation in research as well as little attention paid to the experiences of transgender people.

Additionally, there is insufficient attention to issues facing LGBTQ+ individuals, including homophobia, transphobia, and heterosexism. However, feminist sociology is leveraging new tools, such as digital platforms and intersectional frameworks, to challenge these longstanding patterns of gender bias.

Feminist Sociology

Feminist sociology emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a response to the exclusion of women’s experiences and voices from sociology. It aims to address the structural and institutional barriers to gender equity and ensure that gender issues are reflected in sociological research, theories, and policies.

Integration Approach

The integration approach is one of the key strategies in feminist sociology, aimed at influencing or changing mainstream sociology. It involves adding women into pre-existing research frameworks, or more fundamentally, questioning the assumptions that underpin the field.

This approach also highlights the marginalization of feminist sociologists in the academic world and the importance of including various perspectives for holistic and fruitful social inquiry.


The separatist approach is another strategy in feminist sociology that aims to create a space or a separate tradition of sociology for women, by women. It is a direct challenge to the dominant narrative of malestream sociology and seeks to prioritize gender and intersectional perspectives.

This approach risks marginalization, as it may be seen as limiting the broader social understanding.


The reconceptualization approach involves reworking existing sociological studies and theories to embed feminism into the canon of sociology. This strategy allows for a more fundamental and pervasive change in the structure, assumptions, and outputs of the field.

By reframing existing research, it seeks to provide a more comprehensive and inclusive analysis of social issues.


The malestream orientation of sociology has been a persistent problem that has hampered the ability of the field to fully articulate the diverse array of experiences and voices that comprise human societies. Feminist sociology has offered a critical framework that seeks to rectify this problem by highlighting the significance of gender, intersectionality, and foregrounding female perspectives.

Thus, the integration approach, separatism, and reconceptualization enable and amplify the added value of feminist sociologists towards an objective, comprehensive, and systemic understanding of social relationships.

Progress in Sociology

Sociology has come a long way in advancing our understanding of human societies and social relations. However, this progress has been uneven and incomplete, with certain areas receiving more attention than others.

In this expansion of the previous article, we will explore two key subtopics related to progress in sociology, including gender issues and the lack of study in LGBTQ individuals.

Progress in Gender Issues

One of the most significant areas of progress in sociology has been the increased attention to gender issues. Feminist sociologists have played a key role in elevating the centrality of gender in sociological research, challenging the male-centric approach of malestream sociology.

Through the application of feminist perspectives and theories, sociology has been able to construct a more nuanced and robust understanding of gender relations and issues. For example, feminist sociology has contributed significantly to the study of gender inequality, which exposes the systematic discrimination that women face in society.

Researchers have identified the ways in which gender inequality intersects with other important social categories, such as race and class. This intersectional approach has led to a more comprehensive analysis of the diverse experiences of women and has contributed to the development of policies aimed at reducing gender disparities.

However, while significant progress has been made in some areas, there has been little impact in others. For instance, issues such as the status of women’s unpaid work or the challenges of work-life balance have received little attention from sociology.

Despite the increased attention to gender inequality, many industries, such as STEM fields, continue to experience gender disparities, highlighting the persistence of gender bias and discrimination. Moreover, some argue that feminist sociology has contributed to an overly dichotomous understanding of gender, which can be too circumscribed to adequately capture the lived experiences of people who do not conform to traditional gender norms, highlighting the need for a more nuanced understanding of gender identity and expression.

Lack of Study in LGBTQ Individuals

Despite the growing visibility and acceptance of LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning) individuals, sociology has been slow to incorporate these important issues in its research. The lack of attention to LGBTQ individuals is a reflection of a broader underrepresentation of sexuality and sexual identity in sociological research.

In general, sociology research prior to the 1970s portrayed homosexuality as a form of pathological behavior, a notion that has been steadily challenged by more inclusive research practices. Sociology in previous years also consistently ignored or poorly examined issues related to the LGBTQ community such as the right to marry or adopt, employment discrimination, and violence against this group.

Thus, sociology must broaden research related to sexuality and study the experiences of LGBTQ people. Several factors contribute to the lack of study of LGBTQ individuals.

One of the primary reasons is a lack of funding and political interest. The underfunding of research on LGBTQ issues compared to the significance and number of individuals in this group reflects the broader societal marginalization of this community.

Another factor is a lack of awareness of the experiences of LGBTQ individuals among sociology researchers. Sociologists tend to study what is familiar and tend to simplify complex social reality.

However, given the diversity of sexual identities, experiences, and issues that fall under the LGBTQ umbrella, it is important for sociologists to better understand the nuances and complexities of this group. A third factor is the reluctance of some sociology researchers to engage with topics related to LGBTQ issues, as they might not see homosexuality or transgenderism as “legitimate” sociological phenomena.

Some researchers may even be hesitant about LGBTQ research due to spiritual or moral convictions. However, sociology must take into account its own values, which call for comprehensive study of societies, their functioning, and their diverse groups, including LGBTQ people.


Sociology continues to progress, revealing how societies are changing, and promoting innovation in a range of topics. Progress in sociology towards gender equality and the decrease of stigmatization for LGBTQ people is galvanizing and mirrors social progress on these same issues.

Despite this, there are challenges and shortcomings that remain. Sociologists must remain committed to a robust and all-encompassing study of society, making progress toward equality of all individuals, bringing not just insight to the millions of LGBTQ persons globally but also ensuring that this group is fully understood and included in sociological study.


In conclusion, sociology has made significant strides toward achieving a more comprehensive understanding of human society by incorporating feminist perspectives, researching gender issues, and acknowledging the barriers faced by the LGBTQ+ community. However, sociology still has a long way to go and must remain vigilant in challenging the ongoing male-centric bias in research and increasing representation of marginalized groups in the field.

Nonetheless, sociology’s contributions to the progress of societies are essential to ensure enduring prosperity and equality for all humans. FAQs:

Q: What is malestream sociology?

A: Malestream sociology is a term used to describe the way in which sociology is biased towards male experiences and perspectives, ignoring or downplaying female experiences. Q: What is feminist sociology?

A: Feminist sociology challenges the malestream perspective and provides a critical and constructive framework that seeks to understand the complexities of gender and power, aiming to integrate gender and intersectional perspectives into the study of society. Q: What areas of gender issues have received significant progress in sociology?

A: Sociology has made significant progress in studying gender inequality, which exposes the systematic discrimination that women face in society, and in the intersection of gender with other categories, such as race and class. Q: What are the challenges faced by the LGBTQ+ community in sociology?

A: The challenges faced by the LGBTQ+ community in sociology include underrepresentation, lack of awareness of researchers regarding the experiences of LGBTQ+ individuals, and reluctance of some sociologists to engage with topics related to LGBTQ+ issues. Q: What measures can be taken to address gender bias in sociology?

A: Measures that can be taken to address gender bias in sociology include integrating feminist perspectives, reconstructing existing theories, increasing funding for gender-related research, and increasing awareness of the experiences of women, transgender, non-binary, and other gender or sexuality minorities. Q: What can sociology contribute to the progress of societies?

A: Sociology can contribute to the progress of societies by identifying social problems, developing solutions, and providing insight into social and cultural trends, such as gender and sexual inequalities, to foster more equitable and just societies.

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