Just Sociology

Revisiting Marx: Critiques of Contemporary Society’s Social Constructs

Karl Marx’s view of society is one of the most influential in contemporary times. His theories have acquired a critical status, and they continue to influence the way intellectuals, politicians, and activists perceive the world around them.

Central to Marx’s view of society are the concepts of class struggle and proletarian revolution. Marx saw the world as divided into two main classes, the bourgeoisie, and the proletariat.

The bourgeoisie owned the means of production, while the proletariat worked for them, with little or no control over their destinies. Marx argued that this imbalance of power would inevitably lead to revolution; this revolution would mark the beginning of a new era, one where the proletariat would take control of the means of production, thus creating a society where everyone is equal.

Despite the immense influence of Marx’s ideas, there have been criticisms of his view of society. In this article, we examine some of the criticisms that have been directed at Marx’s theories.

We shall consider the more complex class structure today, the less exploitative nature of capitalism, the less control of the economic base over superstructure, the problematic concept of false consciousness, the less alienation today, the changed capitalism that works for many, the failed communism, and the grand theory, which Marx embodied.

More Complex Class Structure Today

One of the criticisms of Marx’s view of society is that the class structure of contemporary society is more complex than he envisaged. According to Marx, society was divided into two main classes, the bourgeoisie, and the proletariat.

Today, however, there exists a middle class, which is not a feature of Marx’s theory. The middle class consists of petit-capitalists, people who own small businesses or those who work in management positions.

The rise of petit-capitalists has made the class structure of contemporary society more complex. If anything, this complexity has made it harder to organize a revolution since the middle class, although exploited, is not brutalized or impoverished by capitalism, making their struggle harder to mobilize.

Less Exploitative Capitalism

Marx saw capitalism as an exploitative system where the bourgeoisie extracted all the surplus value created by the workers. Contemporary capitalism is less exploitative, more welfare-oriented with a solid safety net.

In this view, capitalism’s ability to bring wide spreads of wealth has been enhanced by the provision of the welfare state. These measures allow workers to improve their economic position, something that was not possible in Marx’s time.

Henry Ford and Keynesian Economics, for instance, demonstrate that strategic policies can make capitalism work for everyone. A simple combination of free education, healthcare, and public housing would allow the working class to take advantage of market opportunities and grow their wealth.

Less Control of Economic Base over Superstructure

Marx believed that the economic system influenced everything that happened in society, including the superstructure (government, culture, and the arts). Contemporary society has somewhat autonomous superstructures, especially the press and the music industry, which remain critical of and resistant to the dictates of the economic system.

This relative autonomy is essential to a healthy democratic society, as it allows the press to criticize and report on matters that do not suit the interests of the ruling class. In music, critical artists continuously challenge the status quo, resulting in more politically aware citizens.

Problematic Concept of False Consciousness

Marx’s theory of false consciousness argues that workers can only perceive the world through the lens of the bourgeoisie, and therefore, their perception is distorted. Post-modernist thinkers argue against this view, insisting that individuals can arrive at independent conclusions, especially with the influence of democratic institutions and open governance.

Some have even argued that Marx’s theory has contributed to the problem of false consciousness, as individuals tend to identify themselves with a particular product, rather than identifying with their social class.

Less Alienation Today

Marx wrote extensively about the alienation of workers; the condition where workers felt isolated from each other, their work, and their world. Today, this condition is less prevalent since workers have the ability to unionize and improve their working conditions.

Enlightened management practices have also contributed to a workplace atmosphere where workers feel valued, engaged, and belong. Self-employment opportunities are also available, allowing individuals to reduce alienation by working on projects that give them more autonomy.

Changed Capitalism Works for Many

The prevailing mood now is that society’s response to economic shifts is not monolithic, but dependent on the social situation, resulting in a variety of societal responses. Neo-liberalism, for instance, stresses the importance of the marketplace and deregulation, while social democracy emphasizes a balanced approach between economic development and the welfare state.

Autocratic-capitalism and The Socialist Dictatorship promise the social equality that Marx propagates, but they haven’t met expectations and have never brought absolute freedom. Economic determinism, which Marx propagated, assumes that society’s direction can be predetermined based on the prevailing economic conditions.

In truth, this view overemphasizes the economic realm’s influence, which is not always predictable nor always accurate.

Failed Communism

Perhaps Marx’s most significant criticism is the failure of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Communism, which promised equality and freedom, delivered neither, resulting in massive inequality, corruption, and lack of freedoms.

Even today, many erstwhile Marxist or Communist countries – particularly in Asia and Africa, have adopted capitalism, having proven more successful in providing economic progress.

Metanarrative of Traditional Marxism

Finally, the grand theorizing characterizing Marx’s view of society seems to be an inappropriate model for specific and localized social issues. Marx’s analytical framework is too broad, and as a result, it obscures the specifics of what particular groups experience in their environment.

In effect, this metanarrative may be useful in understanding general trends. Still, it limits the actual understanding of the unique and specific situations to which it is applied.


Marx’s view of society is one of the most influential theories in contemporary times. Though criticisms abound, it continues to influence contemporary policies and practices globally.

Given the complex class structure prevalent today, which includes the growth of the middle class, the ability of capitalism to work for everyone, a relative autonomy of the economic base over superstructure, and the existence of free individuals that can make independent (and accurate) conclusions, among others, it is necessary to view Marx’s theory critically. Contemporary society no longer subscribes entirely to the Marxist vision, but the theory continues to inform our understanding of social structures and economic paradigms.

In conclusion, Karl Marx’s view of society has generated a fascinating discourse with critiques pointing out that contemporary society’s social constructs are far more complex, and there has been a significant shift in the nature of capitalism. Moreover, there is a newfound autonomy of superstructures, and false consciousness is no longer viewed as an unescapable circumstance for workers.

The era also promises less alienation, and the responses to economic shifts are no longer monolithic. Ultimately, while Marx’s analytical framework may be too broad to get into specifics, it still continues to inform our understanding of social structures and economic paradigms today.


Q: Why is Marxism still relevant in modern society? A: Marxism is still relevant because it highlights the issue of social inequality and calls for a fairer distribution of wealth.

Q: Does contemporary society still have a class struggle? A: Yes, the class struggle still exists, but the class structure is more complex and multilayered than Marx originally envisaged.

Q: Does capitalism still exploit workers today? A: While there is still some exploitation, contemporary capitalism has made concessions such as welfare states and universal education.

Q: What is the role of the press and music artists in society today? A: The press and music artists today occupy a relatively autonomous position, allowing criticism of societal values and capitalism.

Q: Why did communism fail? A: Communist systems failed due to a lack of freedom and subjugation of individuals, resulting in corruption and inequality.

Q: What is the significance of the middle class? A: The emergence of the middle class has made the class structure of contemporary society more complex, making it harder to organize a revolution.

Q: Is false consciousness still prevalent today? A: While it is true that society has become more democratic, false consciousness still exists, though individuals can arrive at independent conclusions.

Q: Does alienation still exist in the workplace? A: While alienation still exists, it is less prevalent, as enlightened management practices or self-employment have contributed to a workplace where workers feel valued and engaged.

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