Just Sociology

The Hyperreality of Fake News: Understanding Complexities and Limitations

In today’s society, social media has become the main source of news and information for many individuals. However, with the rise of user-generated content, social media platforms have inadvertently facilitated the spread of false news, causing legitimate news to become drowned out.

False news creates confusion and undermines the public’s trust in credible sources. False news propagates quicker than true news, and it is crucial to examine why this happens.

This article will explore the complexities of false news and explain why it spreads so quickly on social media platforms.

Fake Political News Spreads the Fastest

It is a well-known fact that fake news spreads the fastest on social media platforms. Among these types of fake news, political news is the most viral.

According to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, false news stories about politics reach 1,500 people six times faster than true news stories. The research identifies the role of echo chambers, tribalism, and political affiliation in the spread of fake political news.

Humans spread False News more than Bots

Research shows that humans are more likely to spread false news than bots. Bots can help amplify and propagate false news, but humans initiate the spread.

MIT Media Lab researchers revealed that false news stories were 70% more likely to be retweeted than the truth, even though they were initially shared much less. Contrarily, the truth rarely gets shared beyond 1,000 people.

Research also shows that bots amplify the volume of political propaganda and false news on Twitter; however, their capacity is limited.

Reasons why People Spread False News

People have multiple reasons for spreading false news. Novelty is one of the key factors that drives people to share fake news.

Humans are comfortable with their opinions and beliefs, but when they encounter novel information, their pre-existing knowledge is challenged. This creates a feeling of unpredictability, and people feel compelled to share it.

Attention-seeking is another motive for spreading fake news. Sharing fake news can be a way of getting more followers or increasing status.

Finally, decision-making is one of the main motives for sharing fake news, and people consider stories that align with their pre-existing beliefs and opinions.

False News Spreads to a Deeper Cascade Depth than True News

Another key factor contributing to false news’s faster spread is its ability to reach a deeper cascade depth. Cascade depth refers to the number of retweets and shares that a post receives before it becomes inactive.

False news stories reach 10 times the depth of truthful news stories. This means that false news stories reach more people than true stories, making it more challenging to contain false news’s damage.

True News Takes Longer to Reach Readers than False News

While false news propagates quickly on social media, true news takes longer to reach readers. The reason for this is that true news often follows a traditional process of editorial oversight and fact-checking.

In contrast, false news can be created quickly and lacks the same level of scrutiny. Once false news gets out, it spreads like wildfire on social media platforms, making it challenging for true news to compete.

It is, therefore, more challenging for legitimate news sources to control the narrative around important topics.

Emotional Associations with Fake and True News

Research has shown that emotions impact the way people perceive and share news. False news stories often provoke strong emotional reactions, such as fear, anger, or excitement.

This is because fake news is often salacious or surprising. In contrast, true news stories may lack the sensationalism that provokes an emotional response.

When faced with a choice between sharing true or fake news stories, people are more likely to share fake stories that provoke an emotional response. Trust is crucial for news sources, and it is often damaged by fake news.

When people encounter a real news story that challenges their opinion, they may not trust it and, therefore, not share it.


In conclusion, the spread of fake news on social media platforms is a complex issue, and requires deeper understanding.

We have identified the role of humans and bots in spreading false news, the reasons why people spread fake news, and the deeper cascade depth of fake news compared to the truth. We have shown how emotional associations can impact story sharing and, finally, why legitimate sources struggle to compete with fake news’s sensationalism.

False news undermines people’s trust in authentic news sources, and posing a challenge to our democracies. Only by understanding the complexity of false news can we develop effective strategies to combat it.

Hyperreality and False News

The spread of false news can be understood through the concept of hyperreality, which was first introduced by French philosopher Jean Baudrillard. Hyperreality refers to the blurring of boundaries between reality and fiction, so that what is real and what is fictional becomes indistinguishable.

False news plays a significant role in creating hyperreality, as it feeds individuals with stories that are untrue and sensationalized, leading them to question the authenticity of other news stories. Moreover, media and social media platforms create hyperreal experiences devoid of actual meaning or reality.

For instance, individuals scroll through social media pages without considering their authenticity, and this leads to them reflexively sharing false news within their networks, believing they are real, which according to Baudrillard is the perfect realization of hyperreality. This process of sharing false news is so swift, individuals do not take the time to question the logic or the legitimacy of the news story.

The consequences of hyperreality caused by false news extend beyond just sharing false information. Instead, it leads to a crisis of trust, followed by social fragmentation and polarization.

This is because individuals develop reinforced beliefs about issues, based on the sensationalized nature of false news. Hyperreality, therefore, has the potential to erode the ability of individuals to evaluate reality and think critically, as it undermines individuals’ capacity to distinguish between what is authentic and what isn’t.

Limits of Study

The study on fake news and false political news on Twitter has several limitations. Firstly the study focuses primarily on political fake news that spreads on Twitter, and consequently misses out on other sources where false news is prevalent, such as YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, and other online platforms.

It leaves out insights on understanding fake news across a broad range of social media platforms. Additionally, by narrowing down to Twitter as the primary research platform, the study misses out on the cultural practices of sharing and discrediting news on other platforms, such as Facebook.

The study’s narrow interpretation neglects the radicalization potential of private groups, chatrooms, and messaging platforms that disseminate false news to targeted individuals, amplifying echo chamber effects. Finally, the study also relies on simple labelling techniques to identify false and true news stories, whereas in reality, false news is difficult to distinguish from real news.

Therefore research that recognizes the complexity of news production and interpretation must be conducted to develop robust ways of identifying sources of origin and understanding the myriad ways in which false news is crafted.

Criticisms of the Study

The study has received criticism for its ideological bias, with scholars arguing that the study’s methodologies inadequately address the role of the mainstream medias biased coverage and the almost unlimited access to the usage of social media bots by politicians. Bots are used to manipulate conversations about political topics on social media and are frequently used to spread propaganda and false news by political elites.

Furthermore, the study risks overgeneralizing findings from just one political climate and a specific temporal framework when fake news trends are dynamic and contextualized in space and time. Consequently, interpreting the study’s findings requires critical reflection and contextualization and should be viewed through the lens of participating individuals’ political beliefs and worldviews.

The study has also been criticized for its failure to report the profiles of the spreaders of fake news. It is unclear whether they were humans, bots, or a combination of the two.

Even if humans were responsible, the study overlooks their political frameworks, bias, competence, and technological literacy, all critical for understanding how they engage with fake news. Therefore, to gain more insight into fake news spreading mechanisms, other investigative methods must be used that take into account social and cultural nuances that add context and meaning to the spread of fake news.


In conclusion, studying the complexities of fake news is a challenging task due to false news’s complex nature and the myriad of ways it can be created and disseminated. The concept of hyperreality sheds light on the significance of fake news, as it reinforces pre-existing ideas, creating alternative realities for individuals.

The study of fake news, while providing key insights is limited, thus, adopting an interdisciplinary approach and using multiple methods, real-time data analytics, and trend forecasting will facilitate a fuller understanding of fake news, its production, dissemination, and effects on society. Understanding the complexities of fake news has massive societal implications, and failure to address it poses a significant challenge to the democratization of information and the production of knowledge.

In conclusion, the spread of fake news on social media platforms is a complex issue that requires us to engage with the concept of hyperreality and its impact on our ability to distinguish between what is authentic and what isn’t. False news undermines people’s trust in authentic news sources and poses a challenge to our democracy.

This article has explored the reasons why fake news spreads faster than truth, the emotional associations with both fake and true news, and the limits and criticisms of studies on fake news on Twitter. It is crucial to study the complexities of fake news to develop effective strategies to combat it.


Q: Why do people spread fake news? A: People can spread fake news for a variety of reasons, including the novelty of the story, attention-seeking, or to reinforce their pre-existing beliefs or opinions.

Q: How does the concept of hyperreality relate to fake news? A: Hyperreality blurs the lines between what is real and what is not, creating a crisis of trust that undermines our ability to accurately distinguish between authentic news and fake news.

Q: Is social media the only platform where fake news spreads? A: No, fake news is prevalent across a range of online platforms, including YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, and other social media networks.

Q: How can we combat the spread of fake news? A: Combating fake news requires a multi-pronged approach that includes promoting media literacy and critical thinking and developing strategies to identify and dismantle sources of fake news.

Q: What are the consequences of spreading fake news? A: Spreading fake news can have far-reaching consequences, including eroding trust in legitimate news sources, sowing social fragmentation and polarization, and undermining the democratic process.

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